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Information is often shared on social media, so please like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter. June's Student Participation Rate, full table including building-level rates. May's Student Participation Rate, full table including building-level rates. April's Student Participation Rate, full table including building-level rates. March's Student Participation Rate, full table including building-level rates. February's Student Participation Rate, full table including building-level rates.
However, whatever the expressed aspirations for information literacy, its reliance on often unaffordable technologies like home computers excluded certain demographics and generated information literacy gaps Eubanks, Only more recently has the digital availability of the world-wide web actually reached genuinely world-wide proportions.
Research links this greater accessibility to the increased leisure time and wealth among the rising bourgeoisie from the late-eighteenth century onward Baldridge, ; Eagleton, Nevertheless, even this greater availability and accessibility did not guarantee access for everyone.
Indeed, Ribot and Peluso persuasively argue that providing availability without enabling accessibility represents a shortfall for any intervention; as such, availability with inadequate accessibility limits the reach of any diffusion of an innovation Kee, ; Rice, While the digital access data cited above would already seem to suggest that a tipping point has been passed for digital accessibility via mobile phones, it does not yet specify when or where or to what extent. This means that, especially in developing contexts where access to high-end, complex technology is rare, creators of content must take into the total variety of devices in use.
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UK, n. For example, while computers edge out smartphones globally as digital access device type, local statistics can vary ificantly; in India, for instance, smartphones exceed computers as the main digital access type, while in Germany, SmartTVs exceed smartphones Limelight Networks, In contrast, in the United States, computers, smartphones, and SmartTVs all have roughly the same level of prevalence Limelight Networks, Given that digital access device type measures vary ificantly in developing nation contexts, to obtain a more accurate measure of the most prevalent access device type will inform efforts to more affordably and effectively create educational content delivery channels with increased odds of reaching their target audiences.
Nevertheless, as clear from this study's data, the tipping point for mobile devices is decisive and most likely definitive, since there have been no changes in this emerging pattern since the mobile device replaced computers between and as the device of preference in all regions.
These increases align with frameworks that recognize how an innovation's availability and accessibility play a critical role in that innovation's adoption Ribot and Peluso, ; Rogers, ; Tolba and Mourad, Consequently, just as a tipping point for book readers with enough resources of skill, time, and money to read was reached, these days increasing s of people have the resources—e.
Breaking Lansing MI english online dating then, an initial overenthusiasm for information and communication technologies ICT in development has dampened in the face of new asymmetries due to digital infrastructure, cost, accessibility, and digital literacy. That is, while computers and smartphones globally have a rough parity of access usage, younger demographics more often access online video content using smartphones Limelight Networks, For educational ICT efforts in developing nation contexts, the fact that the of Internet-accessible cell-phones exceeds other ICT access devices tablets, PCs, laptops by an enormous margin more or less mandates creating cell-phone accessible content Bello-Bravo and Pittendrigh, Attracting as much as one-third of global Internet users overall, YouTube's mobile revenue and usage also continues to increase—there are currently over one billion mobile views per day Brouwer, —while its parent company, Google, has stated its intent to use YouTube to drive its future growth Reuters, Subsequently, to secure cell-phone access and full video watch times for formal and informal development-related educational ICTs on YouTube represents a potentially very wide distribution and knowledge transfer capability for that content.
Currently, the continuing and accelerating proliferation of access to digital and Internet infrastructures in virtually every corner of the world positions ICT educational videos and animations as more and more relevant for delivering knowledge to people of very diverse educational levels Bello-Bravo and Pittendrigh, ; Nye, ; Reddy et al. This agrees with data similarly showing a shift to mobile devices as the preferred delivery mechanism for public service learning in the fields of health, nutrition, food safety, and agriculture Michel and Burbidge, The implications of this historic shift in device use are far-reaching.
Information has become mobile and, as a result, a revolution in messaging and learning is underway. Analysis of such data also further affords a window into any local or regional device type access specifics.
For interventions to address transboundary or global-level issues Ansell et al. Between 4 July and 26 Augusthowever, a tipping point was passed such that mobile phones became the first-preferred device for watching SAWBO YouTube videos in all regions. This is especially the case in developing nation contexts where cell-phones are not only generally the most available digital access device available but are also the most technologically familiar Aker, This mobile ESD combination of elements affords the delivery of high-impact and mission-critical educational information to geographically remote locations, low- or non-literate users, and people of any age, gender, or socioeconomic status who are otherwise overlooked, marginalized, or would not have had access to the information Bello-Bravo and Lutomia, ; Bello-Bravo, Lutomia, Madela and Pittendrigh, ; Bello-Bravo et al.
Nevertheless, the promise of digital technologies remains. By tipping point is meant that smartphones as the device access type surpassed other access device types as the device of choice. Access device use-comparison for North America.
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Model of optimal mobile learning. Similarly, televisions and consoles remain extremely low as access devices for watching, e. However, because SAWBO's educational content is also specifically intended for low- or non-literate, poor, or geographically isolated people in less developed areas, access device type data from SAWBO's channel affords insights for educational content deers' efforts to deliver such content to these demographics.
Moreover, as digital access continues to advance further and further away from each tipping point, whether global or regional, this will have increasing impacts on information communication technology for development ICT4D across areas as diverse as online YouTube learning efficacy, collaborations for mobile-based learning, and how mobile-learners actually use available mobile learning mLearning Aldenny et al. Several different technologies have been offered as potential vehicles for information delivery, including traditional methods of extension education through extension agents, radio, television, and more recently tablets and laptops Jones and Garforth, While ICTs have had considerable impact Aker,they have also fallen short of delivering the anticipated reduction in information asymmetries.
Specifically, data from January to June obtained for SAWBO's YouTube channel were sampled to capture and distinguish the access device-type used and then summarized in broad global and regional. Brodersen et al. The most important focus of this shift is the ability to inform the public at large through public learning services PSL. This shift toward enhanced PSL through the use of mobile technology is a harbinger of a new age in the democratization of information Franco, Carvalho, da Costa Santos and Ventura, ; Hyun et al.
For this reason, to verify empirically whether and how we have passed a tipping point for digital accessibility will inform any future intervention efforts into other transboundary and global-scale but also local issues going forward. This study has two principle breaking Lansing MI english online dating for developing education for sustainable development campaigns and messaging.
The invention of a new technology is not always followed by its immediate or widespread adoption Rice, ; Tolba and Mourad, Often this takes time Rogers,sometimes even a long time, and ificant social changes. Access device use-comparison for South America. And while a growing body of literature has investigated and assessed the effectiveness of various ICT device delivery strategies, including tablets Montrieux et al. For example, tablets have consistently remained around or below 7. First, Brodersen et al. The x-axis is the date of viewing and the Y-axis shows the percentage of views by device.
Access device use-comparison for Central America. Despite considerable research on YouTube as a digital media platform, little research to date has quantified the device-type used to access that online media.
Paralleling the accessibility to books and other print mediawhich did not guarantee access to everyone but positioned accessibility as a critical part of culture and citizenship Sanya, beyond a certain tipping point, so has digital accessibility passed a tipping point to become a critical part of present-day culture and citizenship Choi, ; Sanya and Odero, —without yet safeguarding access for everyone and thus inadvertently or deliberately excluding some.
Source: Adapted from Koole PSL, by definition, is for the public at large. While this afforded another revolution in mass communication, the Internet reached a tipping point when it overtook US newspapers and even television as a primary source for news in andrespectively Pew Research Center, Also like print literacy, although Zurkowski first used the specific term information literacy inbyit was being argued as the most central skill in the current Information Age Kuhlthau, From then, information literacy received urgent attention as a crucial national metric and goal, especially with the emergent mass availability and accessibility of the Internet Doyle, ; Spitzer et al.
Access device use-comparison for Africa. Whatever the expressed aspirations for universal literacy, it overlooked or explicitly excluded certain demographics, including people of color, women, the poor, and people with disabilities Gilmore, ; Keefe and Copeland, ; Lumsford et al. There is little doubt that online video consumption globally is increasing, particularly among younger demographics, and with a peak usage between one to four hours per week Limelight Networks, Globally, this breaking Lansing MI english online dating age gap is more pronounced for device type.
Learn More. The key to both of these functions is information delivery. The x-axis is the date of viewing and the Y-axis the percentage of views by device. Similarly, while the origin of the Internet as a means for rapid communication between remotely located government or university computers has its roots in the s, it would be roughly another thirty years before something recognizable as the Internet would emerge Leiner et al.
The tipping point, as the date where the percentage of views from mobile phones was equivalent to the percentage of views from computers, were also calculated globally and by region. Besides documenting this critical global-historical moment, the also have implications for mass digital-messaging generally and mobile-based public service learning specifically.
Monthly participation rates
For both governments and international development agencies, PSL in the area of health, nutrition, food safety, and agricultural sectors rely heavily on the dissemination of important information to the right users at the right time Bello-Bravo and Lutomia, ; Bello-Bravo, Lutomia, Madela, et al. Second, tipping points by region occurred at different times; some areas were early adopters and others were late adopters.
To match access device and date of observation, the linear portion of data for each access device was straight-line fitted using Mathematica The tipping point—as the date where the percentage of views from mobile phones was equivalent to the percentage of views from computers—was calculated as given in Eq. Use-comparison for six access device types globally. To date, SAWBO has developed and shared educational animations via YouTube on more than topics, in languages and dialects, and that have been watched in more than countries.
As such, the data imply at least a kind of reduction in the digital divide globally through increased mobile phone use, if only in terms of sheer s.
They argue that users in close geographic proximity who exhibit similarities in dialect and culture can spread Web content through word-of-mouth social connections. For example, in Asia, mobile broadband 3G and above had become the dominant technology by the end ofwhich opened access for 2. Governments and international development organizations would do well to heed this shift and adjust their strategies accordingly.
Partly, this situation arises from the already considerable population in Europe and the Americas accessing the Internet, but the explosion of access outside of those regions also occurred due to the miniaturization of personal computers as mobile phones Goggin, ; Ling and Horst, ; Parley, Comparing the increases in fixed versus mobile cell-phone broadband access in the developed and developing world from to ITU,for fixed broadband usage, the developed world saw a 1. Equally, if mobile phones represent the most accessible form of digital literacy, this has ificant implications for adult learning generally.
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Access device breaking Lansing MI english online dating for Europe. What were once inaccessible areas and populations due to restrictions in infrastructure and personnel have now become accessible due to the pervasiveness of mobile technology. In terms of accessibility, the prevalence of social phenomena like phone sharing and SIM swapping Chiumbu, ; Wesolowski et al. Thus, when Johannes Gutenberg created his movable-type printing press inthat invention started a world-altering revolution in communication that opened up radically new potentials for the mass dissemination of information Febvre and Martin, ; McLuhan, and contributed to the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment.
Failure to take advantage of these new possibilities in mobile technology-based PSL runs the risk of widening the digital divide within and between developing regions Robinson, Schulz, Blank et al. For mobile broadband access, however, the developed and developing world differed by a 6.
This PSL has two functions: to avoid crises and to increase knowledge, skill, and productivity. First, mobile devices Android phones, although iPhones may be included in the s in some regions of the world overtook desktop computers as the most popular device for accessing SAWBO videos in all regions. As such, although crossing the tipping point to Internet-accessible cellphones, more than tablets, PCs, or laptops, als a call need for cellphone-friendly content Bello-Bravo and Pittendrigh,successfully deing phone-based ESD applications involves more than simply porting existing digital materials into an App format Rojas-Alfaro and Chen, Second, the rise of mobile technologies presents several advantages for message developers of national-scale, public service-learning PSL Eyler and Giles, as framed through the lens of digital mobile learning Koole, Optimal mobile learning occurs at the intersections of a device Da learner Land a social context S Koole,p.
Without it neither PSL goal can be achieved. Therefore, PSL must include the wide range of devices in use to make sure that public service content is available to the broadest array of users possible.
However, another three centuries approximately would have to pass before a general reading public, in a sense similar to what we see today, began to emerge Eagleton, ; Ellis, ; Tompkins, In this way, sometime between the invention of the printing press and the working out of its revolutionary cultural alterations that we live with today, a tipping point was crossed after which mass communication—in the form of books, journals, periodicals, newspapers, and other mass-printed materials—became not just widely available but also accessible to a general reading public at large.
Smith and Casserly, ; White et al. Third, some devices types always had low to negligible access use. Access device use-comparison for Asia.