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She believed people were not socializing as much due to an increase in television watching. As such, they were kept at a distance from the centers of social life within the Harvard community. By investigating the discourses surrounding early British and American computer dating, it is possible to model one way of applying the insights of sexuality studies to computer history.
In the s, British women were not afforded the legal protection of equal pay a national equal pay act did not come into effect until the mid sand they were—like their American peers—concentrated into sections of the labor force that did not allow them to make nearly as much money or have as many career prospects as men. They were still poorly understood by the public at large, and many people were unsure about what these new machines could actually do, as well as what sorts of tasks they should do.
It was not only the first example of computerized dating in Britain, it also preceded Operation Match by a year. Though many objected to the crude racial stereotypes in how the figures were dating agencies for Atlantic, in a broader sense the cartoon accurately showed what many people imagined and feared when they thought about computer dating at the time. The flip side of these fears about what computers might do was the fact that early computers still required an enormous amount of labor in order to successfully and completely run programs.
By the of divorced women had increased by more than 60 percent, peaking in the age group, and by the late s one in every 15 British marriages would end in divorce.
Com-Pat was so intent on avoiding what Ball considered uncomfortably diverse pairings that its system focused on allowing people to specify the things they would not tolerate in a potential match, rather than simply answering questions about themselves and the things they were looking for in a mate. Source: Powers-Samas Gazette Patterson, an unemployed college graduate with a mechanical engineering degree, shared the ideals of the founders of Operation Match. The government had failed to remove their formal marriage bar until after World War II, when the main clerical union vociferously supported the measure because its membership was now majority women.
Racial segregation and animosity within British society made other matches taboo.
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In the early days of computer dating, however, machine-mediated romantic interactions were often considered untoward or slightly shocking, for reasons similar to the ones that kept women from working alongside men at night. Today, the idea of being matched with a potential romantic partner via computer has been normalized to the point of seeming quotidian. This seemingly revolutionary use of computing power was in fact anything but, and was predicated upon reinscribing conservative social norms into a new set of technological systems.
Com-Pat therefore owed its initial survival to another technology at the margins of the establishment: the illegal rock stations that operated from ships off the coast of England in the s known as the pop pirates. Inattention to this history has the effect of obfuscating the origins and assumptions of present-day technologies used for similar purposes.
By investigating how sexuality structured computing in the past, we can gain greater insight into how identities and technologies are co-created, and the ways in which computing has played a progressively larger role in structuring sexual norms under the dating agencies for Atlantic of offering greater objectivity.
In their Cambridge office headquarters they employed three women to do the work of data processing and ing and bought time on an Avco computer to collate responses. They cultivated predominantly white, straight, middle-class user bases in the hope that the perceived respectability of this user base would transfer onto the new technology. Early mainframes were prone to breakdowns and human labor was a key part of the fiction of effortless automation represented in the popular press.
She drew on the client base of her marriage bureau business to start the computer dating service, initially running both side by side. Source: ICL News Written and deed by men, these computer dating programs promised to take the messiness of human interaction out of the process of meeting women.
Her computerized dating company, the St. James Computer Dating Service, did its first computer run to pair up clients in and incorporated the following year under a new name after merging with another woman-run marriage bureau to expand its user base and make better matches.
The topics and emphases of the questions they posed to users were filtered through their own particular worldview and priorities, both as businessmen and as potential users of the system. The heyday of computer dating occurred during a period when British women were still largely reliant on their relationships with men for their economic stability.
Up to this point, however, historians of computing have paid relatively little attention to the ways in which sexuality molded outcomes and determined patterns of change in the history of computing. What was new, however, was the idea that computerized dating and marital matchmaking could somehow make a messy and imperfect emotional process into a clean, scientific, and rational one—one in which both parties could find their perfect complement and shift with ease into a long-term relationship, secure in the knowledge their match had been electronically vetted.
Matching a white Briton with an Italian might be viewed as surprising, but it dating agencies for Atlantic tolerable to most potential white users of the service. Because sexuality structures our technological interactions as much as it structures our social ones, sexuality intersects with the history of computing in important ways.
The idea that these masculine-identified machines might sexually harass women workers as proxies for real men often figured into jokes and cartoons of the era see cartoon below. Fewer than twenty years had elapsed since the change in the law that had barred women from working while married in the Civil Service. The idea that women and men might meet casually, for sex, instead of within a social context that positioned marriage as the objective, hindered computer dating.
Such services did not simply encourage the pairing up of men and women, they also centralized control over matchmaking in the hands of the mostly straight, white, and privileged young men who deed the systems. The first evidence of Com-Pat advertising in the Times of London appears in the August 22, issue, but—for reasons that will be discussed below—this is not an accurate indication of its earliest date of operation.
Inthe newly merged companies rebranded themselves as Computer Dating Services Ltd. In some ways, this is not surprising. Although this element of the story has been largely ignored in American narratives of computer dating, it is much more apparent in the British context. Services also aimed to pair people up using the most conservative measures of compatibility—matching like with like in the realm of social class, race, and religion, and focusing exclusively on a demographic constructed as, and assumed to be, heterosexual.
Dating and mating were already intertwined with technology by the mid-twentieth century—everything from cars, to telephones, to movie theatres, to photography and postal mail. In practice, users might go on many dates and never find a spouse.
But computerized dating, so often imagined to be a uniquely American invention, had been used in European countries for some time. Marriage was an economic necessity for many women. One of the earliest reported Com-Pat marriages was a colorful exception that proved the rule. In the second year of Operation Match, roughly 70, college students all across the US sent completed questionnaires and three dollars per person in to the three founders.
By catering to these attitudes, and enshrining them within supposedly logic-driven systems, computer matchmaking services further institutionalized social biases and hierarchies. Consciously or not, most early users hoped for a match with someone just like themselves when they sought the supposedly perfect, unbiased logic of a computer dating agencies for Atlantic. Technology is itself an extension of society and social organization. They determined the parameters of what made a good date and who should be matched with whom.
It seemed to take its role as a matchmaking intermediary somewhat more seriously than services targeting younger demographics, like Operation Match. Ball was a thirty-something who kept her marital status private, and her business partner Marjorie Smith was in her sixties with an adult daughter who also worked at the bureau. The most popular entry point into the history of computer dating is the Operation Match program started by two Harvard students Jeffrey Tarr and David Crumpand an outside partner Douglas Ginsburgin Nor were they interested in sharing any other Harvard amenities with women, like the better, more centrally located dining halls and dormitories reserved for Harvard students.
The ultimate goal remained heterosexual marriage, in a context where the problem of creating dating agencies for Atlantic marriages and turning back the rising tide of divorcees was an increasing concern.
The operators who made this possible in the Anglo-American world tended to be women. By the s, popular discourse on technological change highlighted concerns that computers would eventually take over most intellectual tasks, and perhaps even more than that.
A reminiscence from a worker at LEO, an early British computing company—and the company which created the first dedicated electronic business computer—described how LEO bucked the norm of hiring female operators and hired men instead. The history of computer dating is a good point of entry because it is a topic whose very nature requires a discussion of sexuality.
These stations sold Com-Pat advertising when no other respectable venues would, and Ball noted the great debt she owed to them. Across the Atlantic, British women were early adopters of computer dating—both as users and proprietors.
For the most part, however, matching people according to race and social class was taken as a given. Ball already ran a marriage bureau and escort service—women required male escorts in order to attend most nighttime functions; the service was not sexual—so the leap to computer dating seemed logical. The first computer dating company that attained commercial success in Britain was run by a woman.
News media lauded it as an example of American progressiveness, grounded in the ingenuity of young, male technologists.
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Source: The New YorkerFebruary 14,cover. Com-Pat focused explicitly on making matches for marriages, and this represented an important division between the two types of dating services operating in the industry at the time. Many newspapers and magazines would not sell advertising space to either marriage bureaus or computer dating firms on the assumption that these businesses were fronts for immoral or illegal activities. Source: Mavis Tate, M. Women were also not able to get a mortgage without a male relative to co- even if they qualified for a loan.
Smaller Com-Pat, which came out of the marriage bureau industry, did not scale up their profits by collecting a massive user base and pairing up people with lots of partners. The hidden side of this history, however, is the fact that conservative cultural and technological undercurrents structured this technology and made it relatively popular from very early on. These young bachelors were anything but impartial: many started dating services in part because they wanted to use their own systems.
Across the Atlantic, matchmaking services used computers to arrange special mixers for participants, rather than matching them up one-on-one. Instead, it earned more modest returns attempting specific pairings deed to lead to long-term relationships.
Currently, the online matchmaking industry is a multi-billion dollar industry, promising to match up participants better than they would be able to do themselves. Nonetheless, Com-Pat faced a respectability problem early on, which hurt its ability to advertise in major publications. This contradiction points to a deeper issue at play in the de of most early computerized dating services. Their service had only clients at the outset, and catered to a slightly older crowd, including people who had been divorced or widowed. The president and vice-president of Operation Match—incorporated under the name Compatibility Research Corporation—apparently saw no irony in wanting to keep women undergraduates banned from most communal and social spaces at Harvard while developing a computerized system to help themselves and other young men find women to date.
In addition, employing women on overnight shift work with men was perceived as unseemly. He came up with the idea for Dateline after seeing a Harvard computer matchmaking service, possibly Operation Match or its competitor Contact Incorporated, in operation on a visit to campus in In some respects, this was nothing new: from personal to marriage bureaus, technologies for finding mates existed long before computers.
By the early s, mainframes had crept into the popular consciousness through news reports and advertising. These tended to focus on making a profit through providing a dating service with heterosexual marriage as the implicit goal. Their service implicitly positioned women as a product, and assumed that men were the users around whose needs the service should be built.