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The area was occupied as early as but in when the International-Great Northern Railroad was built and the community became a stop on the line, the city began to flourish. City Hall Location: W. Longview St Arp, Texas
Places: Communities. Due to the influx of laborers to the railroad shops, the city's population nearly tripled from to The postwar period also witnessed other important developments.
The narrow-gauge line, known as the Tyler Tap Railroad, was completed in In the Tyler Tap line was acquired by the Texas and St. Louis Railway Company, which located its machine shops and hospital in the town. Roses, other horticultural production, and cattle and hay production ed for the most important sources of agricultural receipts.
Support the Handbook today. A Methodist church was organized inand the First Baptist Church was established in McDonald Lorance served as the first mayor.
In Tyler was an ethnically diverse city with 82, residents; approximately 75 percent of the residents of the greater Tyler metropolitan area were White, 21 percent Black, and 6 percent Hispanic. The population mushroomed to more than 25, by and to 28, by During World War II the economy received a further boost with the establishment of Camp Fannin ten miles to the northeast; it had a troop capacity of nearly 19, at the height of the war. Tyler, the county seat of Smith County, is one of the leading cities of East Texas. During the early twentieth century cotton was the leading cash crop, ing for four-fifths of the agricultural income of the county.
That year the city had 2, rated businesses, more than twice the figure for In the of businesses had more than doubled again to 5, while the population remained relatively static at 83, inhabitants. The town's first bank, the Bonner and Williams Bank, was founded in Numerous new businesses were built during the s, and despite fires which destroyed several city blocks, the downtown area continued to grow. In the s commercial dealings replaced agriculture as the city's economic base. Another log courthouse was built in on the center of the Tyler square; it was replaced inwhen a new, larger brick courthouse was constructed on the same site.
Not surprisingly, Tyler residents voted overwhelmingly for secessionand local men volunteered for army service in large s. Alfred W. Ferguson erected five brick stores on the northwest side of the square between andand Col. George Yarbrough built a three-story building on the northeast side in which he operated a dry-goods store.
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Tyler residents also benefit from a symphony, several theaters and museums, a planetarium, municipal parks and rose gardens, and a zoo. The townsite, located near the geographic center of the county, was selected by a panel of commissioners appointed by the legislature and was named for President John Tyler in recognition of his support for admitting Texas to the United States.
Other industries competed with the oil industry in terms of the of people employed. Tyler remained a small agricultural and railroad city untilwhen the East Texas oilfield was discovered, setting off a huge economic boom.
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Published by the Texas State Historical Association. A public school system was established inand by the town had Episcopal, Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, Church of Christ, and Presbyterian churches, two private colleges, public and private schools, a plow factory, three planing mills, wagon and carriage factories, an ice factory, several gristmills and cotton gins, hotels, an opera house, a waterworks, two banks, and two weekly newspapers, the Tyler Democrat and the Tyler Courier.
Tyler also emerged as the leading medical and educational center for the area. Tyler achieved city status inand by it had 10, residents.
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A new three-story courthouse was built in ; it served the county until the present courthouse was constructed in Despite the importance of the railro, agriculture long remained the mainstay of the city's economy. The town's woes were further compounded when the Texas and Pacific and the International railro both bypassed Tyler in the early s. Foremost of these was the petroleum industry.
As in much of East Texas, the city's economy was heavily dependent on slavery. A daily newspaper, the Tyler Morning Telegraphnine radio stations, and four television stations serve the area. Numerous oil companies and field developers established offices in Tyler, and the city emerged as an important regional center for the oil and gas industry.
The rich soil of the surrounding area attracted numerous planters, and already by Smith County had a population of 4, Buoyed by the prosperity of the surrounding farms and plantations, Tyler quickly emerged as a leading shipping and commercial center for the region.
Byeven though the petroleum industry still represented the largest actual monetary expenditure, the metal and fabricating industries involved more workers.
The city also had extensive railroad and machine shops; manufacturers of woodwork, furniture, clothing, and fertilizer; cottonseed oil mills; and various types of food-processing plants. A Masonic lodge was organized inan Odd Fellows lodge was founded inand the first newspaper was published the same year. Also attracting large s of visitors is the annual spring Azalea and Flower Trails Festival.
The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. After an election in April the city adopted the manager-commission form of government. Tyler was incorporated on January 29,and instituted an aldermanic form of government. Donald W. Whisenhunt, comp.
The more important industries included aluminum foundries, petroleum and chemical plants, concrete block plants, a tire factory, machinery manufacturers, and air-conditioning and refrigeration plants. Other ificant industries were concerned with timber production and the manufacturing of clothing. The Kansas and Gulf Short Line Railroad, founded the following year, also established machine shops there.
Tyler's population grew steadily from 51, in to 57, by Beginning in the s, however, the population expanded rapidly, its growth rate at times even outpacing that of Dallas and Houston. After the mids, however, truck farming and fruit orchards became increasingly important as cash crops. Higher education was provided by Texas College, established in by ministers of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, and by Tyler Junior College, originally established in as part of the Tyler public school system.
With the growing wave of immigrants from the Old South into Texas after annexationTyler grew rapidly.
Injust nine years after its founding, one writer remarked that Tyler was "already a place of considerable importance, and contains many buildings of taste and beauty. With so much of its wealth invested in slavery, Tyler and Smith County suffered from an economic depression in the early post war period. It is ninety-nine miles southeast of Dallas at the junctions of U. The city was authorized on April 11,when the Texas legislature voted to establish Smith County and a corresponding county seat.
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry. In an effort to ensure the town's prosperity, leading Tyler citizens worked to have a spur built from Tyler to Ferguson Big Sandy. Robert W. Glover, ed. In more than 35 percent of the total population of 1, were slaves. During dating online Tyler TX distance Civil War Tyler was the site of the largest Confederate ordnance plant in Texas, and in a large Confederate prison camp, known as Camp Fordwas built four miles to the northeast. Tyler Pounds Regional Airport serves the city and the surrounding region.
A log courthouse on the north side of the square served as the meeting hall and church. By the middle s Tyler had manufacturing plants employing 8, workers. By the s the rose industry had developed into a major business, and by the s more than half the U.
The flourishing rose business gave rise to the Texas Rose Festivalwhich has become one of the city's major attractions. When a peach blight wiped out much of the fruit industry, many farmers turned to growing roses, which proved ideally suited to the climate and soil of the Tyler area.
By there were more than one million fruit trees, mainly peach, in the county.