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Studies interested in the effectiveness of CLTs among school children show increases in both the quantity and quality of students' interracial friendships. What are the general social attitudes towards interracial relationships?
Joyner, K. Figure 2 displays the percentage of interracial friendships reported by each of five research papers that studied interracial friendships for African-American and Caucasian children. One such learning technique is the use of cooperative learning teams CLTswhich are randomly constructed teams of students rewarded for collective, not individual, performance.
It appears that unmarried cohabiting partners are more likely to be interracial than married partners.
Race, ethnicity and marriage in the united states
When developing a CLT teaching structure, students are divided into groups somewhat randomly, without segregating by grade, demographic characteristics, or "ability. Theoretical reasoning for why CLTs are effective in fostering cross-race friendships is that students develop a team culture, and the collective team identity overrides the ethnic identity of individual team members. The percentage of African-Americans with all or almost all same-race friends is lower than for Caucasians, which reflects findings described throughout this bibliography.
Tuch, Sigelman, and MacDonald report data from a massive longitudinal survey of American youth collected annually from to Respondents were asked about the composition of their group of friends. CLTs necessitate that team members interact as equals, which is probably one of the most important contributions of CLTs to interracial friendliness. In sum, small, diverse classrooms with CLT learning structures are the ideal school environment for fostering cross-race friendships. However, cross-race relationships are scarce among Americans, and social attitudes towards interracial relationships appear to be mixed.
These maps show the geography of interracial marriage
Minorities' higher proportion of cross-race friendships could be a result of simply having more opportunities for cross-race friendships, or there could be other factors that influence greater interracial friendliness among ethnic minorities. In order for environments with high proportions of cross-race others to facilitate interracial friendships, there must not be an ample population of potential same-race friends.
Interracial friendships appear to be less stable, but individuals with high proportions of cross-race friends have greater stability and interracial friendship quality than individuals with low proportions of cross-race friends. Structural factors such as teaching orientation, reward structures, demographic diversity, and classroom size can be effectively harnessed by schools to improve cross-race interactions among classmates. How common are cross-race friendships in the U.
Overall, the proportions of cross-race friendships in the U. This trend is most pronounced for Caucasian-Americans. Individuals tend to enter interracial romantic relationships for the same reason others enter same-race romantic relationships: compatible personality characteristics.
Introduction While racial inequality still poses a major social problem in the U. Indeed, many studies have associated interracial relationships with less prejudicial attitudes. Click on the questions below to learn more about cross-race relationships:.
Research on cross-race relationships: an annotated bibliography
A list of questions regarding cross-race relationships has been compiled below to increase ease of throughout this document. However, many studies have shown that a barrier towards societal integration is a consistent trend towards self-segregation Slavin, b; Pinkney, In addition, many controversies still exist about government sanctioned segregation through the use of bussing programs New York-WABC, According to these sources, even though most of the general population is Caucasian-American, minorities still have more opportunities for same- than cross-race friendships.
The prevalence of interracial romantic relationships is low in the United States, and varies by ethnicity. Usually, students stay on the same teams for about three years, so they are able to develop long-term friendships with their teammates. Changes in school structure from tradition to cooperative learning programs increase children's formation of cross-race friendships, as well as friendship quality.
Interracial dating increased 40 percent in the u.s. what about mississippi?
What individual characteristics and motives predict cross-race friendships among children? What factors are necessary for good maintenance of cross-race relationships? Unfortunately, interracial romantic relationships endure the harsher societal rejection than cross-race friendships which may pose a ificant barrier towards their formation and maintenance. The bibliography has also been organized by topic, so you can also click on one of the topics listed below for a review of the literature on that subject.
In terms of this bibliography, "cross-race relationships" and "interracial relationships" refer only to close interracial relationships, such as friendships and romantic relationships, rather than cross-race contact with no attendant feelings of closeness. Caucasian high school students' interracial friendliness appears to have increased, as the percentage of Caucasians with all or almost all same-race friends had a steady decline over the last quarter of the 20 th century. Overall, it appears that U.
Social distance is the degree to which one allows particular social groups to become part of their close social network. This difference is important, as it highlights how different methodologies can yield very different .
What do interracial couples look like?
What are some of the barriers to the formation and maintenance of cross-race relationships? What individual characteristics and motives predict cross-race romantic relationships? African-Americans appeared to have an increase in cross-race friendships during the late s and early s, but this trend reversed in the early s. In general, Caucasians and African-Americans were much less likely than Hispanic-Americans and Americans of other races to be cohabiting with an interracial partner, perhaps reflecting the harsher societal attitudes towards African-American-Caucasian unions.
What are the characteristics of adult's cross-race friendships? Therefore, children in schools where most students are of other races should have more cross-race friendships than children in schools where most students are of their same race. Overall, cooperative learning programs Slavin, a and small, demographically diverse classrooms seem to have met with the most success in increasing the proportion of children's cross-race friendships.
The research suggests that encouraging cooperative learning programs while maintaining small, diverse classrooms will increase proportions of cross-race friendships among school children. An interesting point is that the composition of interracial relationships is qualitatively different from the likelihood of cross-race relationships.
What are the characteristics of children's cross-race friendships? However, Americans who grow up in integrated neighborhoods and schools are more likely to be involved in an interracial romantic relationship.
Interracial relationships vary by county
Simply click on a question to go to the related section. The findings from this review indicate that structural factors can actively affect intergroup relations.
What situational characteristics foster cross-race friendships among adults? CLTs were developed as an alternative to traditional teaching methods that tend to stress individual achievement and to group students by ability. How common are interracial romantic relationships in the United States?
What are the benefits of cross-race friendships for school children? Although interracial relationships are uncommon, they are characterized by mutual respect, support, and collective orientations towards common goals, which is in stark contrast to popularly held beliefs that interracial romantic relationships must be inherently dysfunctional. The opportunity hypothesis proposes that cross-race friendships increase as the opportunities for cross-race friendships increase. However, the schools can implement learning techniques that encourage interracial friendliness between students.
Therefore, children with high proportions of interracial friendships appear to be more open to future cross-race interactions. An underlying assumption of these studies was that members of ethnic minorities are constantly surrounded with more cross- than same-race others. Overall, it appears as if both Caucasian and African-American school children have elected fewer cross-race peers over the course of studies conducted between andwith Caucasians showing a larger reduction than African-Americans.
Among school children, high proportions of cross-race friendships have been linked with social skills and achievement top Alaska for interracial dating. Figure 1 represents the percentage of African-American and Caucasian high school seniors with all or almost all same-race friends for the last quarter of the 20 th century. While conducting their studies, many research papers included the percentage of cross-race friendships in their sample.
By the mids, the percentage of African-Americans with all or almost all same-race friends was basically equivalent to the percentage in the mid s. However, even though the percentage of Caucasians with interracial friendships increased over the study period, they still exhibit less interracial friendliness defined by sheer of interracial friends than the African-American respondents by the mids.
In addition, there are caveats to the opportunity hypothesis.
Being the numerical majority, even though a cohabiting Caucasian is least likely to live with an interracial partner than a non-Caucasian, individuals in cohabiting interracial relationships are most likely to be Caucasian. Therefore, ethnicity alone cannot be relied on to indicate opportunity for cross-race friendship. Even though Caucasians have the lowest percentage of interracial cohabiting relationships they still for the majority of interracial cohabiting relationships in the U.
Figure 4 represents the proportion of all interracial cohabiting partners irrespective of marital status ed for by each ethnicity.
What situational characteristics foster cross-race friendships among children and teenagers? Certain environments increase children's opportunities for and initiation of cross-race friendships. Cross-race friendships reduce racial bias and increase social competence and leadership skills.
Figure 3 below displays the percentage of U. The data was collected in March, by the U. Census Bureau through the annual Current Population Survey. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide readers with a quick reference for questions about cross-race relationships. Interracial romantic relationships represent the smallest degree of social distance.